Gastropod molluscs are among the most diverse and abundant animals in the oceans, and are successful colonizers of terrestrial and freshwater environments. Past phylogenetic efforts to resolve gastropod relationships resulted in a range of conflicting hypotheses. Here, we use phylogenomics to address deep relationships between the five major gastropod lineages—Caenogastropoda, Heterobranchia, Neritimorpha, Patellogastropoda and Vetigastropoda—and provide one congruent and well-supported topology. We substantially expand taxon sampling for outgroups and for previously underrepresented gastropod lineages, presenting new transcriptomes for neritimorphs and patellogastropods. We conduct analyses under maximum-likelihood, Bayesian inference and a coalescent-based approach, accounting for the most pervasive sources of systematic errors in large datasets: compositional heterogeneity, site heterogeneity, heterotachy, variation in evolutionary rates among genes, matrix completeness, outgroup choice and gene tree conflict. We find that vetigastropods and patellogastropods are sister taxa, and that neritimorphs are the sister group to caenogastropods and heterobranchs. We name these two major unranked clades Psilogastropoda and Angiogastropoda, respectively. We additionally provide the first genomic-scale data for internal relationships of neritimorphs and patellogastropods. Our results highlight the need for reinterpreting the evolution of morphological and developmental characters in gastropods, especially for inferring their ancestral states.