Giribet, G. 2014. “On Aculifera: A review of hypotnesis in tribute to Christopher Schander.” Journal of Natural History 48: 2739-2749.
Dunn, C. W., G. Giribet, GD. Edgecombe, and A. Hejnol. 2014. “Animal phylogeny and its evolutionary implications.” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 28: 371-395.
Laumer, CE, G. Giribet, and M. Curini-Galletti. 2014. “Prosogynopora riseri gen. et spec. nov., a phylogenetically problematic lithophoran proseriate (Platyhelminthes : Rhabditophora) with inverted genital pores from the New England coast.” Invertebrate Systematics 75: 11-23.
Kawauchi, GY, and G. Giribet. 2014. “Sipunculus nudus Linnaeus, 1766 (Sipuncula): cosmopolitan or a group of pseudo-cryptic species? An integrated molecular and morphological approach.” Marine Ecology 35: 478-491.
Giribet, G, E. McIntyre, E. Christian, L. Espinasa, RL. Ferreira, OF. Francke, MS. Harvey, et al. 2014. “The first phylogenetic analysis of Palpigradi (Arachnida)-the most enigmatic arthropod order.” Invertebrate Systematics 28: 350-360.
Giribet, G, R. Fernandez, and SL. Boyer. 2014. “On four poorly known harvestmen from New Zealand (Arachnida, Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi, Eupnoi, Dyspnoi, Laniatores).” New Zealand Journal of Zoology 41: 223-233.
Lopez, JV, H. Bracken-Grissom, AG. Collins, T. Collins, K. Crandall, D. Distel, C. Dunn, et al. 2014. “The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing community resources to study diverse invertebrate genomes.” Journal of Heredity 105: 1-18.
Laumer, CE, and G. Giribet. 2014. “Inclusive taxon sampling suggests a single, stepwise origin of ectolecithality in Platyhelminthes.” Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 111: 570-588.
Riesgo, A, M. Novo, PP. Sharma, M. Peterson, M. Maldonado, and G. Giribet. 2014. “Inferring the ancestral sexuality and reproductive condition in sponges.” Zoologica Scripta 43: 101-117.
Bieler, R., PM. Mikkelsen, TM. Collins, EA. Glover, VL. Gonzalez, DL. Graf, EM. Harper, et al. 2014. “Investigating the Bivalve Tree of Life - an exemplar-based approach combining molecular and novel morphological characters.” Invertebrate Systematics 28: 32-115.
Fernandez, R, S. Velez, and G. Giribet. 2014. “Linking genetic diversity and morphological disparity: biodiversity assessment of a highly unexplored family of harvestmen (Arachnida : Opiliones : Neopilionidae) in New Zealand.” Invertebrate Systematics 28: 590-604.
Velez, S, R. Fernandez, and G. Giribet. 2014. “A molecular phylogenetic approach to the New Zealand species of Enantiobuninae (Opiliones : Eupnoi : Neopilionidae).” Invertebrate Systematics 28: 565-589.
Gonzalez, V. L., and G. Giribet. 2014. “A multilocus phylogeny of archiheterodont bivalves (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Archiheterodonta).” Zoologica Scripta 44: 41-58.
Kvist, S, CE. Laumer, J. Junoy, and G. Giribet. 2014. “New insights into the phylogeny, systematics and DNA barcoding of Nemertea.” Invertebrate Systematics 28: 287-308.
Lemer, S., and G. Giribet. 2014. “Occurrence of a bivalve-inhabiting marine hydrozoan (Hydrozoa: Hydroidolina: Leptothecata) in the amber pen-shell Pinna carnea GMELIN, 1971 (Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia: Pinnidae) from Bocas del Toro.” Journal of Molluscan Studies 80: 464-468.
Giribet, G, and S. Lemer. 2014. “On the occurrence of Tuleariocaris neglecta Chace, 1969 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae, Pontoniinae) in Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758) (Echinodermata, Echinoidea, Echinometridae) in the Archipelago of Bocas del Toro, Panama.” Crustaceana 87: 634-638.
Fernandez, R., and G. Giribet. 2014. “Phylogeography and species delimitation in the New Zealand endemic, genetically hypervariable harvestman species, Aoraki denticulate (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi).” Invertebrate Systematics 28: 401-414.
Kvist, S, MR. Brugler, TG. Goh, G. Giribet, and ME. Siddall. 2014. “Pyrosequencing of the salivary transcriptome of Haeadipsa interrupta (Annelida: Clitellata: Haemadipsidae) reveals a wide array of anticoagulants and provides insights into the evolution of anticoagulation capabilities in leeches.” Invertebrate Biology 13: 74-98.
Gainett, G, PP. Sharma, R. Pinto-da-Rocha, G. Giribet, and RH. Willemart. 2014. “Walk it off: Predictive power of appendicular characters toward inference of higher-level relationships in Laniatores (Arachnida: Opiliones).” Cladistics 30: 120-138.
Riesgo, A., N. Farrar, P. J. Windsor, G. Giribet, and S. P. Leys. 2014. “The analysis of eight transcriptomes from all poriferan classes reveals surprising genetic complexity in sponges.” Mol Biol Evol 31: 1102-20.Abstract

Sponges (Porifera) are among the earliest evolving metazoans. Their filter-feeding body plan based on choanocyte chambers organized into a complex aquiferous system is so unique among metazoans that it either reflects an early divergence from other animals prior to the evolution of features such as muscles and nerves, or that sponges lost these characters. Analyses of the Amphimedon and Oscarella genomes support this view of uniqueness-many key metazoan genes are absent in these sponges-but whether this is generally true of other sponges remains unknown. We studied the transcriptomes of eight sponge species in four classes (Hexactinellida, Demospongiae, Homoscleromorpha, and Calcarea) specifically seeking genes and pathways considered to be involved in animal complexity. For reference, we also sought these genes in transcriptomes and genomes of three unicellular opisthokonts, two sponges (A. queenslandica and O. carmela), and two bilaterian taxa. Our analyses showed that all sponge classes share an unexpectedly large complement of genes with other metazoans. Interestingly, hexactinellid, calcareous, and homoscleromorph sponges share more genes with bilaterians than with nonbilaterian metazoans. We were surprised to find representatives of most molecules involved in cell-cell communication, signaling, complex epithelia, immune recognition, and germ-lineage/sex, with only a few, but potentially key, absences. A noteworthy finding was that some important genes were absent from all demosponges (transcriptomes and the Amphimedon genome), which might reflect divergence from main-stem lineages including hexactinellids, calcareous sponges, and homoscleromorphs. Our results suggest that genetic complexity arose early in evolution as shown by the presence of these genes in most of the animal lineages, which suggests sponges either possess cryptic physiological and morphological complexity and/or have lost ancestral cell types or physiological processes.